Drug Name: Lepirudin
Description: Lepirudin is identical to natural hirudin except for substitution of leucine for isoleucine at the N-terminal end of the molecule and the absence of a sulfate group on the tyrosine at position 63. It is produced via yeast cells. Bayer ceased the production of lepirudin (Refludan) effective May 31, 2012.
Drug Name: Cetuximab
Description: Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor binding FAB. Cetuximab is composed of the Fv (variable; antigen-binding) regions of the 225 murine EGFr monoclonal antibody specific for the N-terminal portion of human EGFr with human IgG1 heavy and kappa light chain constant (framework) regions. Cetuximab is marketed under the brand Erbitux® by Eli Lilly and Company. In the United States, a regimen of cetuximab costs approximately $30,790 for an eight-week course.
Drug Name: Dornase alfa
Description: Dornase alfa is a biosynthetic form of human deoxyribunuclease I (DNase I) enzyme. It is produced in genetically modified Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using recombinant DNA technology. The 260-amino acid sequence of dornase alfa is identical to the endogenous human enzyme. Dornase alfa cleaves extracellular DNA to 5´-phosphodinucleotide and 5´-phosphooligonucleotide end products without affecting intracellular DNA. In individuals with cystic fibrosis, extracellular DNA, which is an extremely viscous anion, is released by degenerating leukocytes that accumulate during inflammatory responses to infections. Enzymatic breakdown of this extracellular DNA appears to reduce sputum viscosity and viscoelasticity.
Drug Name: Denileukin diftitox
Description: A recombinant DNA-derived cytotoxic protein composed of the amino acid sequences for diphtheria toxin fragments A and B (Met 1-Thr 387)-His followed by the sequences for interleukin-2 (IL-2; Ala 1-Thr 133). It is produced in an E. coli expression system.
Drug Name: Etanercept
Description: Dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding portion of the human 75 kilodalton (p75) tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. The Fc component of etanercept contains the CH2 domain, the CH3 domain and hinge region, but not the CH1 domain of IgG1. Etanercept is produced by recombinant DNA technology in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell expression system. It consists of 934 amino acids.
Drug Name: Bivalirudin
Description: Bivalirudin is a synthetic 20 residue peptide (thrombin inhibitor) which reversibly inhibits thrombin. Once bound to the active site, thrombin cannot activate fibrinogen into fibrin, the crucial step in the formation of thrombus. It is administered intravenously. Because it can cause blood stagnation, it is important to monitor changes in hematocrit, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and blood pressure.
Drug Name: Leuprolide
Description: Leuprolide belongs to the general class of drugs known as hormones or hormone antagonists. It is a synthetic 9 residue peptide analog of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Leuprolide is used to treat advanced prostate cancer. It is also used to treat uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Leuprolide is also under investigation for possible use in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Drug Name: Peginterferon alfa-2a
Description: Peginterferon alfa-2a is a form of recombinant interferon used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) resulting in less use of Peginterferon alfa-2a. Peginterferon alfa-2a is derived from the alfa-2a moeity of recombinant human interferon and acts by binding to human type 1 interferon receptors. Activation and dimerization of this receptor induces the body's innate antiviral response by activating the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Use of Peginterferon alfa-2a is associated with a wide range of severe adverse effects including the aggravation and development of endocrine and autoimmune disorders, retinopathies, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric complications, and increased risk of hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. The use of Peginterferon alfa-2a has largely declined since newer interferon-free antiviral therapies have been developed.In a joint recommendation published in 2016, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) no longer recommend Peginterferon alfa-2a for the treatment of Hepatitis C [A19593]. Peginterferon alfa-2a was used alongside [DB00811] with the intent to cure, or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR), after 48 weeks of therapy. SVR and eradication of HCV infection is associated with significant long-term health benefits including reduced liver-related damage, improved quality of life, reduced incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and reduced all-cause mortality [A19626].Peginterferon alfa-2a is available as a fixed dose injector (tradename Pegasys) used for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C. Approved in 2002 by the FDA, Pegasys is indicated for the treatment of HCV with [DB00811] or other antiviral drugs [FDA Label]. When combined together, Peginterferon alfa-2a and [DB00811] have been shown to achieve a SVR between 36% for genotype 1 and 59% for genotypes 2-6 after 48 weeks of treatment.
Drug Name: Alteplase
Description: Human tissue plasminogen activator, purified, glycosylated, 527 residues purified from CHO cells
Drug Name: Sermorelin
Description: Sermorelin acetate is the acetate salt of an amidated synthetic 29-amino acid peptide (GRF 1-29 NH 2 ) that corresponds to the amino-terminal segment of the naturally occurring human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or GRF) consisting of 44 amino acid residues
Drug Name: Interferon alfa-n1
Description: Purified, natural (n is for natural) glycosylated human interferon alpha proteins 166 residues
Drug Name: Darbepoetin alfa
Description: Human erythropoietin with 2 aa substitutions to enhance glycosylation (5 N-linked chains), 165 residues (MW=37 kD). Produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by recombinant DNA technology.
Drug Name: Urokinase
Description: Low molecular weight form of human urokinase, that consists of an A chain of 2,000 daltons linked by a sulfhydryl bond to a B chain of 30,400 daltons. Recombinant urokinase plasminogen activator.
Drug Name: Goserelin
Description: Goserelin is a synthetic hormone. In men, it stops the production of the hormone testosterone, which may stimulate the growth of cancer cells. In women, goserelin decreases the production of the hormone estradiol (which may stimulate the growth of cancer cells) to levels similar to a postmenopausal state. When the medication is stopped, hormone levels return to normal.
Drug Name: Reteplase
Description: Human tissue plasminogen activator, purified, glycosylated, 355 residues purified from CHO cells. Retavase is considered a "third-generation" thrombolytic agent, genetically engineered to retain and delete certain portions of human tPA. Retavase is a deletion mutein of human tPA formed by deleting various amino acids present in endogenous human tPA. Retavase contains 355 of the 527 amino acids of native human tPA (amino acids 1-3 and 176-527), and retains the activity-related kringle-2 and serine protease domains of human tPA. Three domains are deleted from retavase - kringle-1, finger, and epidermal growth factor (EGF).
Drug Name: Erythropoietin
Description: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth factor produced in the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells. It works by promoting the division and differentiation of committed erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow [FDA Label]. Epoetin alfa (Epoge) was developed by Amgen Inc. in 1983 as the first rhEPO commercialized in the United States, followed by other alfa and beta formulations. Epoetin alfa is a 165-amino acid erythropoiesis-stimulating glycoprotein produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology and is used for the treatment of patients with anemia associated with various clinical conditions, such as chronic renal failure, antiviral drug therapy, chemotherapy, or a high risk for perioperative blood loss from surgical procedures [FDA Label]. It has a molecular weight of approximately 30,400 daltons and is produced by mammalian cells into which the human erythropoietin gene has been introduced. The product contains the identical amino acid sequence of isolated natural erythropoietin and has the same biological activity as the endogenous erythropoietin. Epoetin alfa biosimilar, such as Retacrit (epoetin alfa-epbx or epoetin zeta), has been formulated to allow more access to treatment options for patients in the market [L2784]. The biosimilar is approved by the FDA and EMA as a safe, effective and affordable biological product and displays equivalent clinical efficacy, potency, and purity to the reference product [A7504]. Epoetin alfa formulations can be administered intravenously or subcutaneously.
Drug Name: Salmon Calcitonin
Description: Synthetic peptide, 32 residues long formulated as a nasal spray.
Drug Name: Interferon alfa-n3
Description: Purified, natural (n is for natural) human interferon alpha proteins (consists of 3 forms or polymorphisms including 2a, 2b and 2c). 166 residues, some are glycosylated (MW range from 16 kD to 27 kD).
Drug Name: Pegfilgrastim
Description: Pegfilgrastim is a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) analogue, [filgrastim].[A187601] It is used to decrease the incidence of infection, as manifested by febrile neutropenia, in patients with with non-myeloid cancer receiving myelosuppressive anti-cancer treatment. Some patients with greater risk factors may develop febrile neutropenia from myelosuppressive therapy and are susceptible to an increased risk of developing infections. Although the risk of developing febrile neutropenia is less than 20% in many readily used chemotherapy regimens,[L9782] infections pose risks of hospitalization and mortalities.[A187631] Due to the relatively short circulating half-life of filgrastim, a 20 kDa PEG moiety was covalently conjugated to the N-terminus of filgrastim (at the methionine residue) to develop a longer acting version of the drug.[A29, A187607] Due to a longer half-life and slower elimination rate than filgrastim, pegfilgrastim requires less frequent dosing than filgrastim. However, pegfilgrastim retains the same biological activity as filgrastim and binds to the same G-CSF receptor to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of neutrophils.[A187607]First developed by Amgen, pegfilgrastim was initially approved by the FDA in 2002 and marketed as Neulasta®. It is typically administered via a subcutaneous injection. There are several pegfilgrastim biosimilars (Fulphila®, Pelgraz® or Lapelga®, Pelmeg®, Udenyca®, Ziextenzo®, and Grasustek®) that are approved for the same therapeutic indication by Health Canada, European Union (EU), and FDA.[L9779,L9785] These biosimilars are highly similar to the reference product, Neulasta®, in terms of pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile and condition(s) of use, such as the therapeutic indication(s), dosing regimen(s), strength(s), dosage form(s), and route(s) of administration.[L9974]
Drug Name: Sargramostim
Description: Sargramostim is a human recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expressed in yeast. It is a glycoprotein that is 127 residues. Substitution of Leu23 leads to a difference from native protein.
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